This list was updated for the last time in the Summer Semester of 2019. The “What is...?” Seminar still continues, you can find the uptodate list of talks at the new webpage whatisseminar.xyz.
Date  Location  Time  Title  Speaker 

April 12  TU MA 212  13:15  What are... support vector machines?  Katerina Papagiannouli (HU) 

No whatis (Good Friday/Karfreitag)  
April 26  BMS Loft  13:00  What is... Steinitz' theorem?  Sophia Elia (FU) 
May 3  FU SR 019 (Arnimallee 3)  13:15  What is... a g_d^r?  Carlos Maestro Pérez (HU) 

Potsdam  
No whatis (Euler Lecture)  
May 17  FU/HU/TU (TBA)  TBA  TBA  TBA 
May 24  BMS Loft  13:00  TBA  TBA 
May 31  FU/HU/TU (TBA)  TBA  TBA  Riccardo Morandin (TU) 
June 7  BMS Loft  13:00  TBA  TBA 
June 14  FU/HU/TU (TBA)  TBA  TBA  Tom Klose (TU) 
June 21  BMS Loft  13:30 (Kovalevskaya lunch)  TBA  TBA 

No whatis (BMSBGSMath Junior Meeting, please register!)  
July 5  HU?  TBA  TBA (BMS Friday followed by the von Mises Lecture)  TBA 

No whatis (last day of classes) 
Date  Location  Time  Title  Speaker 


No whatis (Geo.X Career Day)  
October 26  BMS Loft  13:00  What is.... the secret of the zeta function?  Barbara Jung (HU) 

No whatis (BMS softskills seminar)  
November 9  Urania  13:00  What is... the Euler characteristic of a polytope?  Hannah Sjöberg (FU) 
November 16  TU MA212  TBA  What is... a topological surface?  Georg Lehner (FU) 

No whatis (BMS softskills seminar)  
November 30  BMS Loft  13:00  What is... the Alexander polynomial of a knot?  Max Krause (TU) 
December 7  FU SR140  14:00  What is... the best voting system?  Josué Tonelli Cueto (TU) 
December 14  BMS Loft  13:30  What is... tensor networks, topological order and entanglement renormalization?  Alex Nietner (FU) 

No whatis (last day of classes)  
January 11  FU SR140  14:15  What are... interval graphs, interval orders, and their friends?  Simona Boyadzhiyska (FU) 
January 18  BMS Loft  13:00  What is... a competing species model?  Florian Nie (TU) 

No whatis  
February 1  TU MA212  13:15  What is... a hydrodynamic limit?  Tommaso Cornelis Rosati (HU) 
February 8  BMS Loft  13:00  What is... it like to lower the mixed volume?  Dimitrios Bogiokas (FU) 

No whatis (last day of classes)  
February 19  BMS Loft  10:00 (sharp!)  What is... the WrightFisher diffusion?  Eugenio Buzzoni (TU) 
Date  Location  Time  Title  Speaker 


No whatis (BMS softskills seminar)  
April 27  BMS Loft  13:00  What is... a matroid?  Jorge Alberto Olarte (FU) 

Potsdam  
No whatis (Euler Lecture)  

No whatis (after holiday)  
May 18  BMS Loft  13:30  What is... Kronecker Coefficients?  Levent Doğan (TU) 

No whatis  
June 1  BMS Loft  13:00  What is... control theory?  Alejandro López (FU) 
June 8  TU MA 415  14:0018:00  "What is?" seminar 10th anniversary What is... an ultrafilter? 
Peter Krautzberger 
June 15  BMS Loft  13:00  What is... a Scheme?  Marco D'Addezio (FU) 

No whatis (von Mises lecture)  
June 29  BMS Loft  13:00  What is... semialgebraic sets in context?  Josué TonelliCueto (TU) 
July 6  FU SR032  14:00  What is... a Positional Game?  Alp Müyesser (Carnegie Mellon) 
July 13  FU HarnackHaus  13:00  What is... a ranking algorithm?  Benjamin Gardiner (TU) 

No whatis 
Date  Location  Time  Title  Speaker 


No whatis (Geo.X Career Day)  
October 27  BMS Loft  13:00  What is... a random graph?  Jannes Münchmeyer (HU) 
November 3  TU MA316  14:00  What is... algebraic statistics?  Carlos Améndola (TU) 
November 10  BMS Loft  13:00  What is... a finite element method?  Monika Eisenmann (TU) 

No whatis (BMS softskills seminar)  
November 24  Urania  13:00  What is... a spectrahedron?  Mario Kummer (MPI Leipzig) 

No whatis (BMS softskills seminar)  
December 8  TU MA316  14:00  What is... monomial tropical cones for multicriteria optimization?  Georg Loho (TU) 
December 15  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... the Teichmüller space of a surface?  Lara Skuppin (TU) 

No whatis (Last day of classes)  
January 12  TU MA212  16:00  What are... large deviations?  András Tóbiás (TU) 
January 19  BMS Loft  13:00  What are... Maxwell's equations?  Marek Gluza (FU) 

No whatis  
February 2  BMS Loft  13:00  What is... a homotopy invariant?  Alexander Müller (FU) 

No whatis (Week before exams)  
February 16  BMS Loft  13:00  What is... an inverse problem?  Héctor Andrade Loarca (TU) 
February 20  BMS Loft  10:00  What is... molecular dynamics? (BMS Days)  Mohsen Sadeghi (FU) 
Date  Location  Time  Title  Speaker 

April 21  BMS Loft  13:00  What is... Hamiltonian dynamics?  Alexander Fauck (HU) 
April 28  TU MA212  14:00  What is... triangulated spheres and Pachner moves?  Giulia Codenotti (FU) 
May 5  BMS Loft  13:00  What is... variational inference?  Patrick Jähnichen (HU) 

No whatis (I, Scientist)  

Potsdam  
No whatis (Euler Lecture)  

No whatis (After holiday)  
June 2  BMS Loft  13:00  What is... Iwasawa Theory?  Marcin Lara (FU) 

No whatis (BMS softkills seminar)  

HU  
No whatis (von Mises Lecture)  

No whatis (BMS softkills seminar)  
June 30  BMS Loft  13:00  What is... BPP, RP and the other probabilistic complexity classes?  Josué Tonelli Cueto (TU) 
July 7  TU MA212  13:00  What is... a condition number?  Paul Breiding (TU) 
July 14  BMS Loft  13:00  What is... Onsager's conjecture?  Robert Lasarzik (TU) 
July 21  FU  16.00  What is... Gröbner Basis doing in Sudoku?  Irem Portakal (FU) 
Date  Location  Time  Title  Speaker 

October 21  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... mixed integer linear programming?  Stanley Schade (FU/ZIB) 
November 4  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... a modular form?  Antareep Mandal (HU) 

No whatis  BMS 10th Anniversary  

No whatis  
December 16  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... formal mathematics?  Martin Skrodzki (FU) 
January 13  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... Randomness Good For?  Shagnik Das (FU) 
January 27  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... the length of a potato?  Josué Tonelli Cueto (TU) 
February 10  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... a (Discontinuous) Galerkin Finite Element Method?  Lasse Hinrichsen (FU) 
February 21  BMS Loft  10:00  What is ... Linear Programming?  Georg Loho (FU) 
Date  Location  Time  Title  Speaker 

April 29  BMS Loft  13:30  What is ... symplectic geometry?  Mara Ungureanu (HU) 
May 13  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... a Chow Ring?  Fei Ren (FU) 

Potsdam  
No whatis (Euler Lecture)  

HU  
No whatis (von Mises Lecture)  
June 17  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... an Eigenvector of a Tensor?  Kathlén Kohn (TU) 
July 8  HarnackHaus  13:00  What is ... a Sphere Packing?  Albert Haase (FU) 
Date  Location  Time  Title  Speaker 

October 16  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... representation theory?  Patrick Da Silva (HU) 
October 30  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... a period?  Filippo Nuccio (Université St. Étienne) 
November 13  TU Berlin  13:00  What is ... reciprocity?  Jan Hofmann (FU) 
November 27  

No Whatis talk  
December 11  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... Discrete Fourier Analysis?  Christoph Spiegel (FU) 
January 15  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... a padic number?  Claudius Heyer (HU) 
January 29  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... a stochastic process?  Stefan Rüdrich (FU) 
February 5  FU Berlin, SR031  16:00  What is ... an Origami Constructible Number?  Josué Tonelli Cueto (HU) 
February 12  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... the Disjoint Paths Problem?  Miriam Schlöter (TU) 
February 16  BMS Loft  10:00  What is ... a Rational Function?  Irem Portakal (FU) 
Date  Location  Time  Title  Speaker 

April 24  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... the complexity of matrix multiplication?  Pierre Lairez (TU) 
May 08  TU (MA 212)  13:00  What is ... a supercritical percolation cluster?  Nguyen Tuan Anh (TU) 

No whatis  

Potsdam  14:00  No whatis (Euler Lecture)  

No whatis (Workshop on Nonlinear Algebra)  
June 05  FU SR031  16:00  What is ... a transfer operator?  Adam Nielsen (ZIB) 
June 12  BMS Loft  13:30  What is ... group homology?  Peter Patzt (FU) 
June 19  HU  16:00  What is ... the heat kernel?  Asilya Suleymanova (HU) 

HU 0101  14:00  No whatis (von Mises Lecture)  

FU/TU/HU  16:00  
July 10  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... Ramsey Theory?  Manh Tuan Tran (FU) 
Date  Location  Time  Title  Speaker 

Oct 24  HU 1.023  16:00  What is ... a syzygy?  Daniele Agostini (HU) 
Oct 31  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... an Ehrhart Polynomial?  Hannes Pollehn (TU) 
Nov 14  BMS Loft  13:30  What is ... a CAT(0) space?  Sebastian Meinert (FU) 
Nov 28  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... a (complex) hyperplane arrangement?  Arnau Padrol Sureda (FU) 
Dec 5  FU SR031  16:00  What is ... the ham sandwich theorem?  Florian Frick (TU) 
Dec 12  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... a Hamiltonian system?  Jonathan Youett (FU) 
Jan 9  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... sparse and redundant representation modeling for image processing?  WangQ Lim (TU) 
Jan 16  TU MA313  16:00  What is ... a van Kampen Obstruction Cocycle?  Isaac Mabillard (IST Austria) 
Jan 23  FU SR025/026  13:00  What is ... the probabilistic method?  Shagnik Das (FU) 
Feb 6  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... (algebraic) complexity theory?  Jesko Hüttenhain (TU) 
Date  Location  Time  Title  Speaker 

Apr 25  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... the NavierStokes equation?  Ariane Papke (FU) 
May 9  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... a random graph?  Adam Streck (FU) 
May 16  Potsdam  14:00  Euler Lecture  
May 23  HU 0311  13:15  What is ... a partial zeta function?  Miguel Grados (HU) 
Jun 6  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... an isohedral tiling?  Michael Joos (TU) 
Jun 13  HU 0101  14:00  von Mises Lecture  
Jun 20  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... the moduli spaces of curves?  Giulia Battiston (FU) 
Jun 27  HU 1.023  16:00  What is ... the AtiyahSinger Index Theorem?  Lucas Braune (IMPA Rio de Janeiro) 
Jul 4  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... a Riemannian manifold?  Lara Skuppin (TU) 
Jul 11  FU SR031  16:00  What is ... TimeofDeath Modeling?  Jonas Krone and Zoi Tokoutsi (FU) 
Jul 18  BMS Loft  13:30  What is ... a gyroid?  Ulrich Reitebuch (FU) 
Date  Location  Time  Title  Speaker 

Apr 19  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... a higher order tensor decomposition?  Max Pfeffer (TU) 
Apr 26  HU 1.023  16:00  What is ... an Lfunction?  Miguel Grados (HU) 
May 3  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... the Nash embedding theorem?  Ariane Beier (Potsdam) 
May 31  Potsdam  Euler Lecture  
Jun 7  FU SR031  16:00  What is ... a subgradient?  Elias Pipping (FU) 
Jun 14  HU 0119  von Mises Lecture  
Jun 21  BMS Loft  13:00  What are ... abstract functions and weak convergence?  Christian Kreusler (TU) 
Jun 28  TU MA313  16:00  What is ... matrix completion?  Franz Király (TU) 
Jul 5  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... a selfavoiding random walk?  Giovanni Conforti (HU) 
Jul 12  BMS Loft  13:15  What is ... a variational inequality?  Carsten Gräser (FU) 
Date  Location  Time  Title  Speaker 

Oct 19  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... a Smoke Ring?  Felix Jakob Knöppel (TU) 
Oct 26  TU MA212  16:00  What is ... persistent homology?  Mijail Guillemard (TU) 
Nov 2  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... a quaternion algebra?  Christian Wald (HU) 
Nov 9  HU 1.023  16:00  What is ... a BruhatTits tree?  Inder (HU) 
Nov 16  RTG Stochastic Analysis Colloquium  
Nov 23  FU SR031  16:00  What is ... a regular map?  Faniry Razafindrazaka (FU) 
Nov 30  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... a spacetime singularity?  Phillipo Lappicy (FU) 
Dec 7  HU 1.023  17:30  What is ... a Hodge locus?  Ananyo Dan (HU) 
Dec 14  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... SU(2) and why does it doublecover SO(3)?  Florian Frick (TU) 
Jan 11  IRTG Moduli and Automorphic Forms Colloquium  
Jan 18  TU MA313  16:00  What is ... a quasiconformal mapping?  Isabella Thiesen (TU) 
Jan 25  BMS Loft  13:15  What is ... a jinvariant?  Emre Sertoz (HU) 
Feb 1  FU SR031  16:00  What is ... a monotonicity formula?  Ahmad Afuni (FU) 
Feb 8  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... a rational tangle?  Silvia de Toffoli (TU) 
Feb 15  TU MA313  16:00  What is ... a Palindromic Eigenvalue Problem?  Christian Schröder (TU) 
Feb 19  BMS Loft  10:00  What is... a positional game?  Dennis Clemens (FU) 
Date  Location  Time  Title  Speaker  Video 

April 13  TU MA212  16:00  What is ... a spectral method?  Maciek Korzec (TU)  
April 20  BMS Loft  13:00  What is... a dissipative weak solution?  Romain Nguyen (FU)  
April 27  HU 1.023  14:00  What is ... a pathfollowing method?  Jennifer Rasch (HU)  
May 4  FU SR031  16:00  What is ... software development?  Kristian Rother  
May 11  Potsdam  Euler Lecture  
May 18  TU MA212  16:00  What is ... a differential inclusion?  Shahrad Jamshidi (FU)  
May 25  FU SR031  16:00  What is ... a configuration space?  Dror Atariah (FU)  
June 1  HU 1.023  16:00  What is ... a problem in mathematical finance?  Julio Backhoff (HU)  
June 8  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... a group action?  Mikola Lysenko (UW Madison)  
June 15  TU MA212  16:00  What is ... a Dirac operator?  Juan Orduz (HU)  
June 22  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... the FabriciusBjerre theorem?  Felix Günther (TU)  play 
June 29  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... a group representation?  Giovanni de Gaetano (HU)  
July 6  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... Brownian motion?  Adrian Gonzalez Casanova (TU)  
July 13  HU 1.023  16:00  What is ... Ext and its applications?  Hannah Enders (HU) 
Date  Location  Time  Title  Speaker 

October 21  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... diffusion?  Maciek Korzec (TU) 
October 28  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... Tropical Geometry?  Cesar Ceballos (FU) 
November 4  HU 1.023  16:00  What is ...a zeta function?  David Ouwehand (HU) 
November 11  Kovalevskaya Lecture  
November 18  FU SR031  16:00  What is ... a Gröbner basis in a polynomial ring?  Andre Mialebama (FU) 
November 25  TU MA212  16:00  What is ... the Lagrangian relaxation of an integer program?  Jonad Pulaj (ZIB) 
December 2  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... a lattice in a Lie group good for?  Barbara Jung (HU) 
December 9  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... propagating interfaces and level set methods?  Antoine Laurain (HU) 
January 6  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... a shearlet?  WangQ Lim (TU) 
January 20  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... an independent transversal?  Lothar Narins (FU) 
January 27  TU MA004  16:00  What is ... the connection between the Kantian Intuition of Mathematical Objects and Diagrams?  Özge Ekin (FU) 
February 3  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... Risk?  Samuel Drapeau (HU) 
February 10  HU 1.023  16:00  What is ... a Feynman integral?  Christian Bogner (HU) 
February 22  BMS Loft  BMS Days: What is ... the fundamental group and covering spaces?  Fabian Lenhardt (FU) 
Date  Location  Time  Title  Speaker  Video 

April 15  BMS Loft  11:45  What is ... a Modular form?  Anil Aryasomayajula (HU)  play 
April 22  Easter Holiday  
April 29  BMS Loft  12:00  What is ... the KuhnTucker theorem?  Thomas Lehmann (ZIB)  play 
May 6  TU MA212  16:00  What is ... an infinitesimal?  Thomas El Khatib (TU)  play 
May 13  BMS Loft  12:00  What is ... a graph?  Daniel Heldt (TU)  
May 20  Potsdam  Euler Lecture  
May 27  BMS Loft  12:00  What is ... the direct method in the calculus of variations?  Beatrice Bugert (WIAS)  
June 3  Holiday  
June 10  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... a moduli space?  Fabian Müller (HU)  play 
June 17  FU A6 007/8  16:00  What is ... a sheaf?  Nikolai Beck (FU)  
June 24  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... linear programming?  Ambros Gleixner (ZIB)  
July 1  Adlershof  Richard von Mises Lecture  
July 8  BMS Loft  13:00  What is ... a Green's function?  Marcel Ortgiese (TU)  
July 15  HU 1.023  16:00  What is ... a matroid?  Markus Hihn (HU) 
Date  Location  Time  Title  Speaker  Video 

October 22  BMS Loft  14:00  What is ... a Catalan Number?  JeanPhilippe Labbé (TU)  
October 29  TU MA212  16:00  What is ... Hilbert's 17th Problem?  Moritz Schmitt (TU)  
November 5  BMS Loft  15:30  What is ... a stable marriage?  Ágnes Cseh (TU)  play 
November 12  HU 1.023  16:00  What is ... a selflocator?  Heinrich Mellmann (HU)  
November 19  FU SR031  16:00  What is ... a multifunction?  Klebert Kentia (HU)  play 
November 26  BMS Loft  12:30  What is ... the origin of elliptic functions?  Barbara Jung (HU)  play 
December 3  BMS Loft  12:30  What is ... the probabilistic method?  Anita Liebenau (FU)  play 
December 10  BMS Loft  12:45  What is ... cognitive neuroscience?  Roland Friedrich (HU)  
January 7  FU SR031  16:30  What is ... a derived category?  Andreas Hochenegger (FU)  
January 14  BMS Loft  12:45  What is ... a Diophantine equation?  Stefan Keil (HU)  play 
January 21  TU MA212  16:30  What is ... a random walk on a network?  Natasa Djurdjevac (FU)  
January 28  BMS Loft  12:45  What is ... math blogging?  Felix Breuer (FU)  
February 4  HU 1.023  16:00  What is ... the exit problem?  Han Lie (HU)  
February 11  BMS Loft  12:45  What is ... P vs NP?  Jannik Matuschke (TU)  play 
February 18  TU MA 212  16:30  What is ... a weak derivative?  Stefan W. von Deylen (FU)  
February 22  BMS Loft  9:30  What is ... a matroid?  Matthias Lenz (TU) 
Date and place  Title  Speaker 

April 24, @BMS,  What is... the Adaptive Finite Element Method?  Joscha Gedicke 
May 1  (General Holiday)   
May 8 @BMS  What is.. the Dedekind zeta function?  Anna Posingies (HU) 
May 15 BMS@TUlounge  What is.. entropy?  Yvon Vignaud 
May 22 @FU  What is ... a Goppa Code?  Nathan Ilten 
May 29  Euler Lecture @Potsdam   
June 5 @FU  What is... a flag vector?  Axel Werner (ZIB) 
June 12 @Adlershof  Mises Lecture   
June 19 @BMS  What is ... the field with one element?  Laura Hinsch (FU Berlin) 
June 26 @FU  What is ... the square root of a graph?  Robin Scholz (Potsdam) 
July 3 @FU  What is ... topological dynamics?  Peter Krautzberger 
July 10  BMS Summer Outing @Golm   
July 17 @FU 
Datum und Ort  Thema  Vortragender 

17. Okt., @BMSFridays  Vorstellung des Seminars (@ BMSFriday)  N.N. 
24. Okt., @FU  What is... the Random Graph?  Stefanie Frick (FU Berlin) 
31. Okt., @BMSFridays  What is... Homotopical Algebra? (@ BMSFriday)  Anton Dochtermann (TU Berlin) 
07. Nov., @FU  What is... deformation?  Nathan Ilten (FU Berlin) 
14. Nov., @BMSFridays  What is an elliptic curve? / Basic Notions in algebraic and arithmetic geometry  Anna Pippich / Fritz Hörmann (HU Berlin) 
21. Nov., @FU  What are ... loops and the fundamental group?  Dror Atariah 
28. Nov., @BMSFridays  What is ... geometric knot theory?  Barbara Jablonska (TU Berlin) 
05. Dez., @FU  What is ... Hindman's theorem?  Peter Krautzberger 
12. Dez., @BMSFridays  What is ... spectral expansion?  Anna Pippich (HU) 
19. Dez., @FU  What is ... similarity of shapes?  Daria Schymura (FU) 
09. Jan., @BMSFridays  What is ... the P vs NP problem?  Matthias Lenz (TU) 
16. Jan., @FU  What is ... an averaging principle?  Carsten Hartmann (FU) 
23. Jan., @BMSFridays  What is ... the Birch and SwinnertonDyer conjecture?  Fritz Hörmann 
30. Jan., @FU  What is ... a Fraisse construction?  Artem Chernikov 
06. Feb., @BMSFridays  What is ... Helly's theorem?  Mareike Massow (TU) 
13. Feb., @FU  What is... Brownian motion?  Plamen Turkedjiev 
Datum und Ort  Thema  Vortragender 

Donnerstag, 3. Juli, 10 Uhr c.t., A6 Raum 031  Was ist eigentlich... das Kontinuum und was ist sein Problem?  Gido ScharfenbergerFabian 
Donnerstag, 29. Mai, 10 Uhr c.t., A6 Raum 031  Was ist eigentlich... der RicciFluss?  Tobias Marxen 
Donnerstag, 5.Juni, 10 Uhr c.t., A6 Raum 031  Was ist eigentlich... die Schälung eines Polytops?  Frederik von Heymann 
Donnerstag, 22. Mai, 17 Uhr, A6 Raum 031  Was ist eigentlich... ein Ultrafilter? (und was kann man damit anstellen?)  Peter Krautzberger 
Donnerstag, 12. Juni, 10 Uhr c.t., A6 Raum 031  Was ist eigentlich... eine Garbe?  Nathan Ilten 
Donnerstag, 26. Juni, 10 Uhr c.t., A6 Raum 031  Was ist eigentlich... eine sinnvolle Erweiterung der Halbgruppe der natürlichen Zahlen?  Peter Krautzberger 
Donnerstag, 19. Juni, 10 Uhr c.t., A6 Raum 031  Was ist eigentlich... eine sinnvolle Verallgemeinerung des Zwischenwertsatz?  Felix Breuer 
Donnerstag, 17. Juli, 16 Uhr c.t., A6 Raum 025/026  What is... the chromatic number of the plane?  Michael Payne 